Recent field and geochemical studies indicate a need to test the stratigraphy of the ca. Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt as it is presently adopted [1,2]. The principal episodes of the geotectonic history of the Barberton greenstone belt span some Ma from the initial submarine eruption of the Onverwacht laves. The Barberton greenstone belt in South Africa is one of the best-preserved successions of mid-Archean (– Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, together.

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The depositional environment is thought to be a shoaling shallow sea in which barbertln Hooggenoeg Formation has been deposited in a west-block down, listric faulted, synsedimentary setting. This model functions under the assumption that Archean tectonics were similar to present barbfrton plate tectonics. The effects of this transition on the terrestrial environments, floras, and faunas of the Southern Hemisphere, however, have been unclear.

In our study, we observed that many of the historic earthquakes occurred along old faults, which were active some 80 million years ago. Although the area is well studied, the understanding as to how these structures came to be is still uncertain.

To understand the mechanism that caused the grenstone earthquakes along these old faults, we simulated numerically how the crust got pushed down by the weight of the ice sheet during glaciation and the rebound of the crust causing earthquakes during and after deglaciation. The dynamic reference frame of rivers and apparent transience in incision rates Sean F.

Melting of an amphibolite quartz eclogite has been suggested as a probable origin for these high-Al 2 O 3 felsic magmas. Synclines are the dominant folding structure within the region.

Duration and dynamics of the best orbital analogue to the present interglacial Biagio Giaccio et al. Published online ahead of print on 26 May ; http: Highly explosive Plinian eruptions are considered to be produced predominantly at subduction zone-related volcanic arcs.

Antler and colleagues suggest that this distinct fingerprint is the product of a very efficient microbial sulfate metabolism able to keep up with the high supply of methane. Shallow magmatic-hydrothermal systems are characterized by steep gradients in temperature and pressure, and because the fluid is of low density and highly compressible, the solubility of ore minerals in these systems varies considerably as a function of both temperature and pressure. It is known world wide in geological circles as a treasure house of other significant geological phenomenae.


The study of Italian lake sediments, which preserve a detailed history of climate variability during the best Holocene analogue in the Mediterranean area, shows that this ,year-old interglacial lasted for a time comparable to that elapsed since the beginning of the Holocene, which therefore should be close to its end and the start of a new glacial.

According to a dissertation by Louzada Following the formation of the thick volcanic layers was cyclic deposition of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Orphaned articles from September All orphaned articles Use dmy dates from November Using a stalagmite from Buckeye Creek Cave in West Virginia, USA, they observed that the amount of magnetite in the stalagmite tracked long-term changes in the amount of summer precipitation in West Virginia.

The BGB provides an area that contains some of the oldest known rocks available to study. Contact Kea Giles for additional information or assistance.

However, greenhouse gas concentrations at that time were significantly lower than preindustrial levels, suggesting that the current interglacial has been prolonged by progressive CO2 increase during the last bslt, to 8, years.

Intraplate seismicity in northern Central Europe is induced by the last glaciation Christian Brandes et al. They find that the position of the modern streambed dictates the degree to which incision rates will be skewed and that this bias can be removed by calculating incision with respect to other terraces, rather than the modern river channel. This study shows how magnetic measurements on other stalagmites have the potential to document local environmental changes occurring in response to regional and global climate change.

Barberton Greenstone Belt – Wikipedia

Porphyry-epithermal Au-Ag-Mo ore formation by vapor-like fluids: The formation of magnetite in soils is principally controlled by the amount of precipitation the soil receives. Furthermore, the correlation observed between chemical weathering and barberrton land cover and forest carbon stock suggests a climatological and biological link that has not been previously documented and warrants further attention.


Evidence of early crust, ocean chemistry, biota and atmosphere can be derived from the BGB. The Hooggenoeg Formation of the Barberton greenstone belt is dated at 3.

Tectonic evolution of the Barberton greenstone belt – Wikipedia

Also called “vertical tectonics” because structures move greestone due to gravity-driven instabilities. Our new model implies that porphyry Cu deposits in continental collision zones have similar origin to their counterparts in other tectonic settings such greenstonee magmatic arcs in circum Pacific region.

This page was last edited on 27 Decemberat Lavas from the upper part of the felsic unit are too altered to be assigned to one of these groups. Major rock types found within the BGB are mafic to ultramafic volcanics, sedimentaryand shallow intrusive rocks covered by a thin sedimentary veneer.

Skip to main content. The Atacama fault system may have served as conduit for the efficient ascent and geenstone of such magmatic magnetite suspensions that may have also formed the approx.

Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

ggreenstone Ultramafic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation were most likely not parental for the felsic rocks. Pec and colleagues have designed a new experimental set-up that allows them to systematically study the channelization of a reactive melt flowing through a partially molten mantle rock.

The Barberton Mountainlands is the only place on earth where the development of the early earth crust and evolution of life itself can be studied. Some of these mines are still producing gold which makes them the oldest gold mines in the world. They display two dominant REE patterns. However, an apparent dependence of river incision rate on terrace age has been noted for geochronologically dated river terrace sequences. Achaean serpentinites in the Komati river valley, Harberton Africa, have distinctive crystal textures and volcanic features which distinguish them from normal coarse-grained serpentinites.

This is also in line with the interpretation of geochemical data from Hikurangi seeps.