Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

The BMQ consists of an item questionnaire which assesses medication beliefs in general and in specific conditions allowing for the investigation of the overall perceptions of medication in general BMQ—Generalas well as perceptions of medication in more definite situations such as chronic illnesses BMQ —Specific.

A target sample size of patients per disease group was established. To further confirm factor loading, PCA was then carried out on the items in each sub-scale in order to verify that the items in each sub-scale were loading on one component. Significant care was taken during the translation process, engaging professional academic translators of the Maltese language together with healthcare professionals highly proficient in both the Maltese and English language.

This was done through an expert panel in order to resolve discrepancies and allow for agreement between speech habits and preferences in the translated language. Specific-Concerns scale assesses perceptions of the likelihood of adverse reactions as a consequence of taking the prescribed medication.

Factor loadings have been a challenge in most of the similar studies carried out due to cultural adaptations and translated items, which might have posed a difficulty during the translation process.

Necessity and Concerns, 5 items per sub-scale. Table 7 Principal component analysis using varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalisation. Cognitive debriefing results and finalisation Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items. Forward translation One independent forward translation was carried out using Maltese fonts by the principal investigator.

Int J Med Educ. In the case of the BMQ-Specific items, S1, S3, S4, S7 and S10 loaded all on component 3 necessityconfirming this as the Specific-necessity scale, as all items correspond to the items developed as representative of this scale. Items G5 and G6 loaded on component 2 harm. When comparing alpha values obtained for the Maltese study with other studies carried out 79 – 121621242930 Table 9 it was noted that despite the notion that alpha values of 0.


The forward translation was discussed and revised for better harmonisation of concepts in the instrument, with the intention of capturing the conceptual meaning of the items. Therefore, patients with different levels of education should be targeted differently when counselling patients about their medicines.

To our knowledge, a validated tool to assess adherence to medicines is not available in the Maltese language. The patients selected were those with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma, diabetes, depression or cardiovascular disease.

This could possibly be the reason why older generations might be misguided in understanding the meaning of natural remedies. As shown in Table 4item G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines showed non-significant correlations with the other items G1 Doctors use too many medicines and G7 Doctors place too much trust on medicineswhereby item G8 If jedicines had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines had the lowest correlation with item G4 when compared to items G1 and G7.

BMQ – Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire

Int Mdeicines Clin Health Psychol. Ranges of alpha are shown for all groups involved in the study. During the analysis of alpha, items G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines and G8 If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines resulted in unexpectedly lower values.

One independent forward translation was carried out using Maltese fonts by the principal investigator. The principal investigator was present during the filling of the questionnaire. Low alpha values could be indicative of certain items on the general overuse queztionnaire not measuring the same concept. In the case of the Specific-concerns factor, all items loaded on the concerns factor, however items S6 My medicines are a mystery to me and S8 My medicines disrupt my life gave higher loadings on the General harm factor.

A conceptual primer on coefficient alpha. Spanish De las Cuevas et al. Developer of BMQ Horne et al.

Please review our jedicines policy. However, anecdotally, when taking the items into consideration, G5 Medicines do more harm than queationnaire might have loaded on the overuse scale as patients might associate harm to be directly related to over-prescription, whereas G7 Doctors trust medicines too much might lead patients to assume that too much trust in medicines by practitioners leads to over-prescription and overuse, which could in turn lead to adverse effects which might be harmful.


Internal consistency and reliability for these sub-scales were also comparable to the other studies with the closest values being those reported in the Greek version used to study patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Due to the items loading on different components, PCA was conducted with restriction of up to four factors, by loading each item on its respective component, as was done b,q the Portuguese study.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

The General-Harm sub-scale assesses beliefs about how harmful medicines are mbq the General-Overuse sub-scale addresses the concept of over-prescription of medication bjq doctors who place too much trust in them.

Received Nov 11; Accepted Feb There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The principal investigator asked the patients for a few minutes of their time, explained to them that she was conducting a study on the beliefs about medicines and asked them if they would be kind enough to fill in the questionnaire.

Factor loadings include 0. The questionnaire was collected and checked on completion. The BMQ-Specific comprises 10 items which are sub-divided into two sub-scales. Beliefs about health and illness in women managed for gestational diabetes in two organisations. Component 2 was identified as the General-harm scale with items G5 and G6, two items that were originally developed for this scale, having high loadings for this component items developed as representative of scale include Mwdicines, G3, G5, G6.

Medicinex remedies were part of folklore which people in Malta moved away from upon introduction of what is today considered to be conventional medicine. Journal List Pharm Pract Granada v. The Belief about Medicines Questionnaire BMQdeveloped by Professor Robert Horne and colleagues, as a method for assessing cognitive representations of bbmq, was validated for use in patients suffering from common chronic diseases.

Cronbach alpha values abkut presented in Table 3. However, elimination of item S6 gave only minor gains with respect to the internal consistency of the tool. Both items G4 and G3 loaded on two components, component 1 overuse and component 4 concernswith G4 having a higher loading on component 4.