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() Miichi, Ken, Farouk, Omar (eds.), Southeast Asian Muslims in the era of globalization, pp. 61 – (Part of book). Download/Full Text. Open Access. In the s, discussions in circles of committed Muslims in Indonesia were enriched with the concept of ghazwul fikri (al-ghazw al-fikri, invasion of ideas). Ghazwul FIKRI updated their profile picture. April 3 ·. Ghazwul FIKRI’s photo. Like Comment. See All. Photos. Image may contain: text. Image may contain: one or.

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The liberal and tolerant attitudes displayed by the likes of Wahid and Madjid were decried as threats to genuine Islam, the unfortunate effects of globalization, an invasion of dangerous alien ideas: The situation changed dramatically aroundwhen in various parts of the country violent mobs, incited by self-appointed guardians of orthodoxy, attacked Ahmadi institutions gjazwul residences, while the police, reluctant to appear insufficiently sympathetic to radical Islam, did not dare to intervene.

Ghazwul fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim responses to globalization

The groundwork had been laid by organizations such as the DDII, and further developed by the various networks of study circles, both on and off campus. As a nation, Indonesia was shaped by Dutch colonialism and Islam-inspired resistance to foreign domination.

He told me proudly about his son, who studied at the famous Agricultural Institute of Bogor and who was a very serious young man.

The communications revolution due to the new electronic media — video cassettes and VCDs Video Compact Diskssatellite television, Internet yhazwul mobile telephony — enabled Indonesians to be eyewitnesses to important events in flkri parts of the Muslim world and to identify more strongly with Muslim struggles across the globe. See BeckBurhani In the first weeks, when still trying to get my bearings in the fikti environment, I frequently met with a friendly elderly gentleman, who happened fikdi live next to the guesthouse where I ghazwu staying, and who was very knowledgeable about Javanese and Sundanese culture and the spirit beliefs in which I took a special interest.

Masyumi leader Mohamad Natsir had been jailed under Sukarno and was released from prison soon after Suharto took over. Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th Centuries: In the s, discussions in circles of committed Muslims in Indonesia were enriched with the concept of ghazwul fikri al-ghazw al-fikri, invasion of ideaswhich became a catch-all term to refer to various forms of Western cultural invasion: Cambridge University Press, pp.

The Rabita provided the DDII — or rather, Natsir personally, as well as some of the other contact persons; all relations ghaswul personalized — with funds for building mosques and training preachers. Mukti Ali and Harun Nasution, who were to exert a major influence on later generations of Muslim students, were the best known among this ghazwup cohort. More overtly political and generally left-leaning student movements had been successfully repressed in the late s, and strict new regulations prevented most organized student activity on campus, but the government allowed, and perhaps even encouraged, the cultivation of religious piety through study circles known as halqah or daurah.


Ghazwul fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim responses to globalization

However, these cultural flows have been highly complex and richly varied, and so has their impact. He and other prominent Masyumi leaders were, however, not allowed ghazwull play a role in formal politics again, and the party remained banned. Locally recruited activists then attempted to establish groups of sympathizers in neighbourhoods.

In the post-Suharto period, a number of global Islamic issues were imported into the local political arena, as a fikrk result of increased transnational contacts. It has been remarked before that many Muslim students became radicalized while studying at American universities. The most famous and influential of the American graduates was Nurcholish Madjid.

The Indonesians who adopted the term and the accompanying worldview borrowed them lock, stock and barrel from Arab, and more specifically Egyptian, authors.

The decree stopped short of actually banning the Ahmadiyah, as had been demanded by the Council of Ulama and various radical groups. Both men had an enormous influence on younger generations of students and Muslim intellectuals Muzani ; Munhanif The increasing popularity of the term reflects increasing communication with the Arab Middle East.

Cendekiawan Islam Zaman Belanda: The effects of such programmes are seldom exactly as hoped; and in fact, they may in some cases have the reverse effect. Click here to sign up. Since then, more gikri have followed and the local authorities, feeling under pressure, closed down the Ahmadi mosques and forbade the Ahmadis to congregate for worship.

Ghazwul Fikri by Ahmad Faisal on Prezi

The former two movements sprang from student groups at several of the better Indonesian secular universities; a high proportion of their members and cadres are graduates from institutes of higher education in non-religious subjects. Suharto co-opted many of his former Islamist critics through a number of symbolic pro-Islamic gestures, and within the armed forces fikdi faction emerged that patronized Islamist groups.

The famous madrasah of Deoband, and later the Maududi Institute in Ghazwjl, have attracted significant numbers of Malaysian students and made a lasting impact on Muslim discourses in Malaysia; see the contributions by Noor After retirement, he had given in to his interest in the Javanese spiritual tradition and started practising meditation.

Arab Political Thought and Practice Since Both the proponents of the ghazwul fikri thesis and the opponents of Arabization appeared to share the perception that Indonesian Islam was under threat of being subverted by foreign influences and the assumption that local cultures are largely passive recipients of global flows. Under the New Order their number rapidly expanded until every province had one.


It remained very much an Indonesian movement, however, with Indonesian concerns and objectives restricted to Indonesia. Cornell Southeast Asia Program, http: In the long run, the impact of the Iranian revolution was overshadowed by the Saudi reaction to it.

Around the same time, the Ahmadiyah also began to gain influence in the same circles, due to its English-language publications and the English- speaking missionaries it had sent from British India to Indonesia. A perusal of relevant journals may yet show up earlier usage of the term in the late s, but these are the books one finds often quoted by later Indonesian authors.

Events and discussions taking place in Cairo were relayed to Indonesia by students at al-Azhar. Its leading members were not exclusively Salafi-oriented but included Islamist thinkers such as Maulana Maududi in Pakistan as well as several Sufis. In Cirebon, such conversions have been taking place but never on a massive scale; relations between the large pesantren and the surrounding abangan environment have long been characterized by mutual hostility and distrust.

Colonial rule, gradually expanding during this period, integrated the various regions of insular Southeast Asia under a single administration and introduced new ideas and practices in law, education and associational life. Martin van Bruinessen, Ghazwul fikri or Arabization? Notions of cosmopolitanism and so-called universal values are not neutral and supra-civilizational, but they are the weapons used by one of the civilizations in its effort to dominate the others.

Upon their return, they often attempted to reform local religious practices and bring them more in line with what they had witnessed in Arabia. See Jabali and Jamhari ; Steenbrink Muslims across the spectrum, from secular-minded liberals and progressives to Islamists and Salafis, have in various ways incorporated some influences of Western origin or mediated by actors in the West as well as influences traceable to the Middle East, alongside yet other influences.

This fikrri initially, I gather, a gesture of Third World solidarity in support of Arab nationalism. Critics were quick to point out that this concept was itself a symptom of another kind of cultural invasion. Islam had come to Fiori from various parts of Asia and in many different forms, but in the nineteenth century it was Arab traders from Hadramaut and hajis, local men who had made the pilgrimage to Mecca, who were the most important cultural brokers.