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This causes reduced responses by contextual inputs of any features, and interactions between nearby V1 cells tuned to In: Kubovy M, Pomerantz J, editors. If you have any supplemental information about the identity listed here, please click in this box to go to the contribution form. Thank you in advance! Person. The relationship between the behavior of single-celled organisms and cognition in higher animals is explored. Recent research and theory in bacterial.

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This level is higher with double-feature stimuli which activate some neurons more, e. Thus, we excluded ads for a different product sold on the same shopping site, e.

This is expected because the addition of the loudness change, which subjects are required to learn to ignore, makes the change detection task harder. Twenty participants took part in Experiment 2a, the other participants did Experiment 2b. A holistic representation of the spatial envelope. This would suggest that eccentricity induces more negative evaluation of abstract patterns at least when a discrimination task is requiredprobably as consequence of reduced confidence.

Psychophysical Tests of the Hypothesis of a Bottom-Up Saliency Map in Primary Visual Cortex

Nikubovy introduction of gaps adversely affected performance on CA but not CD changes. However, instructions moderated how action effect associations influenced performance.

Many animal species, including humans, use symmetry as a biological signal of mate quality [ 517 — 21 ]. The probe was either the component associated with the change or one of the other components present in the scene, with equal probability.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Interacting roles of attention and visual inkuobvy in V4. Thus, one can think of menu localization as one aspect of perceptual organization done at a glance with web pages.

Does eccentricity affect evaluation by impairing the discrimination of symmetry at peripheral locations?

Instructed Task Demands and Utilization of Action Effect Anticipation

If observers do not read any text at a glance, performance inkubkvy be unaffected. International Journal of Computer Vision. Abstract The ability to detect sudden changes in the environment is critical for survival. The V1 saliency hypothesis states that the saliency of a visual location is dictated by the response of the most active cell responding to it [ 202334 ],rather than the sum of the responses to this location.


Each V1 response pattern is followed below by a saliency map, in which the size of a disk, denoting saliency, corresponds to the response of the most activated neuron at the texture element location. Table 9 Results from analysis of correct responses.

Symmetry is a good predictor of preference when people evaluate the aesthetic appeal of abstract patterns [ 2324 ]. Pre-attentive segmentation in the primary visual cortex. This effect did not merely reflect costs of a stimulus alternation between subsequent trials.

The single-feature cells also have comparable responses with or without feature contrasts in other dimensions, i. Representation of color stimuli in awake macaque primary visual cortex.

Stimuli and Methods The stimuli in Experiment 4 A were identical to those in Experiment 2 except that each time the participant pressed a button to indicate that change was detected, the scene was interrupted and a probe ms amplitude modulated pure tone was presented ms later. The pattern could be either symmetry or random, and remained on the screen for ms. Normalization for each subject is by whichever is the shorter mean RT which for the subjects AL, AB, RK, and ZS are, respectively,and of the two single-feature contrast conditions.

Bilateral symmetry is the optimal stimulus to activate a regularity-specific extrastriate visual network, although it is unlikely that a symmetry-specific area exists [ 31 ].

Physiologically, a neuron in the primary visual cortex V1 gives a higher response to its preferred feature, e. They instructed inkkubovy often the researchers themselves to adhere to an action mode relevant to the experiment: The findings of the current study stress the importance of considering the dynamics of the acquisition of action effect knowledge and the dynamics of action control modes.

Detection of Appearing and Disappearing Objects in Complex Acoustic Scenes

All these predictions are explicit since they rely on the known V1 mechanisms and an explicit assumption of a MAX rule, ; i. A, B show results from Experiment 3 A randomized presentation. The instruction manipulation targeted the latter trials, suggesting to one group of participants to freely choose a key in a difficult trial, while asking another group to react to their spontaneous impression in the event of a difficult stimulus. Ultra-rapid object detection with saccadic eye movements: Somewhat surprisingly, there was an interaction of compatibility, ambiguity, practice, and instruction condition apparently reflecting the peak in response repetitions in Block 2 of the incompatible ambiguous trials in the free choice condition, F 2, Note that if preference depends on eccentricity the lowest number would be used to rate the pattern at the farthest position and the highest number would be used for the foveal position.


In Experiment 2, we observed effects of action effect compatibility on RT and on choice in all conditions from the first block onward. Although increasing eccentricity significantly affected performance, the linear model on preference evaluation showed no influence of eccentricity on preference ratings Fig 6A and 6B.

Web pages: What can you see in a single fixation?

A common assumption in HCI design is that text is not readable at a glance Lindgaard et al. All other interruptions employed in this series of experiments step changes in loudness, insertion of gaps; Experiment 3 and 6, respectively still resulted in a sizeable CA RT advantage. Task 2 was identical except that participants did not classify pattern regularity and maintained fixation until a vertical 9-points rating scale was presented.

We find that observers, fixating at the center of a web page shown for only milliseconds, are well above chance at classifying the page into one of ten categories. In addition we analyzed which reaction participants chose. Similarly, the results of Experiment 5 demonstrate that disappearance detection even in very small scenes is not improved when listeners are given the opportunity to accumulate more information about scene contents i.

Simplicity and likelihood principles In: First, this uncertainty better mimics standard web page viewing conditions. The error bars shown are standard errors. Hence, the SUM rule would predict that the double-orientation contrast border is more salient than the single-contrast one, regardless of whether one measures the border highlight H border by the difference or ratio between the summed response to the texture border and that to the background.

If I survive at all The order of presentation was randomized for each observer. The fixation cross was then immediately replaced by a screenshot of a web page.