Discriminant Analysis allows a researcher to study the difference between two or more groups of objects with respect to several variables simultaneously. These procedures, collectively known as discriminant analysis, allow a researcher to study the difference between two or more groups of objects with respect to. functions, classification functions and procedures. and various selection criteria for the inclusion of variables in discriminant analysis. Professor. Klecka derives.

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Psychological Bulletin, 95 Multiple regression in behavioral research. In any computerized stepwise procedure the pre-set degrees of freedom are ” one ” for each variable included in the analysis. These degrees of freedom constrain the number of inquiries we may direct at our data and are the currency we spend in analysis ” p.

The problems associated with stepwise methods, i. If the original number of predictor variables was ten than the correct ” charge ” is ten.

PDA is appropriate when the researcher is interested in assigning units individuals to groups based on composite scores on several predictor variables, i. As Discriminannt suggested, it is possible that otherwise worthy variables are often excluded from the analysis altogether and assumed to have no explanatory or predictive potential. The use of structure coefficients in regression research.

Discriminant Analysis – William R. Klecka, William R.. Klecka – Google Books

Within this context, methods that increase the separation of groups by providing information about the importance of variables, an erroneous enticement offered by stepwise methodologies, would be valuable. The differences between Y 4 and Y 3or between Y 1 and Y 2may be due to sampling error.


DDA includes a collection of techniques involving two or more criterion variables and a set of one or more grouping variables, each with two or more levels, whose effects are assessed through MANOVA.

Huberty recognized that reducing the number of variables is sometimes warranted, as a preliminary analysis, wnalysis. Thompson provided a clear illustration of this type of error within a regression context in that same journal article. But, generally, research questions are of the descriptive mlecka or of the predictive type; only seldom would both types of questions be addressed in a given research situation.

The error is built into computer programs that do discriminant analyses. Variable selection may be important when the original variable set needs to be reduced for a particular reason. However, Table 6 describes a different picture of the potential explanatory power of individual variables. However, the correct degrees of freedom are given in Analysis 2. Thompsonusing a stepwise regression example, described how stepwise procedures do not select the best set of predictor variables of size q.

Therefore, in regression the degrees of freedom ” unexplained ” 1-pv are necessarily computed incorrectly Thompson, The problem of incorrect degrees of freedom in statistical tests of significance could be addressed directly by the researcher by changing the values to the correct ones and recalculating the F statistics.

Discriminant Analysis – SAGE Research Methods

But, as Huberty and Bartonp. What statistical significance testing is, and what it is not. Educational and Psychological Measurement45 Stepwise methods are as bad in discriminant analysis as they are anywhere else. Several researchers Huberty,; Snyder, ; Thompson,have highlighted three basic problems inherent in the use of stepwise methodologies, i.

The use of structure coefficients in multivariate educational research: Table 5 presents standardized canonical discriminant function coefficients and Table 6 presents a structure matrix from a stepwise discriminant function analysis. The accuracy of such prediction can be assessed by examining ” hit rates ” as against chance, for example.


The purpose of the present paper is to familiarize the reader with the use of stepwise methodology in discriminant analysis. discgiminant

Therefore, predictive discriminant analysis and descriptive discriminant analysis are discussed in general, and then their relevance with respect to stepwise techniques is examined. Why summaries of research on psychological theories are often uninterpretable.

Discriminant Analysis

Students and researchers should be cautioned against interpreting potentially fallible results commonly generated by computer packages.

The reader is encouraged to consult the numerous texts on DA referred to by Hubertypp. Snyder, have advanced strong arguments against the use of stepwise methodologies. Statistical inference using the jackknife and bootstrap procedures.

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Thompson ‘ s example involves data from subjects on dependent variable, ” Y “and 50 predictor variables. This heuristic provides information about the accuracy of the prediction rule, i.

Table 3 provides an example of a classification disvriminant used to report results from an application of a prediction rule.

Despite the close association between DA and MR, it is important to note that some researchers anaylsis recognized that all parametric procedures can be derived from the same linear model which involves the use of least squares weights Cohen, ; Knapp,