Stephen Krashen (University of Southern California) is an expert in the field of Order hypothesis;; the Input hypothesis;; and the Affective Filter hypothesis. It is a hypothesis of second-language acquisition theory, and a field of According to the affective filter hypothesis, certain emotions, According to Krashen (), there are two prime issues that. The affective filter hypothesis in language learning, what does it mean? Krashen believes we should not correct people in the early stages.

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The first is not allowing for a silent period expecting the student to speak before they have received an adequate amount of comprehensible input according to their individual needs.

The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability.

Learning with Steve: The affective filter hypothesis in language learning, what does it mean?

In effect, afdective teachers and students are deceiving themselves. This article needs additional citations for verification. This hypothesis was based on the morpheme studies by Dulay and Burt, which found that certain morphemes were predictably learned before others during the course of second-language acquisition.

The hypotheses are the input hypothesis, the acquisition—learning hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis.

He believes that too much emphasis on correct output, in the early stages of learning, can be a major reason for these anxieties. Due to these difficulties, Krashen recommends using the monitor at times when it does not interfere with communication, such as while writing.

This hypothesis highlights the importance of using the Target Language in the classroom. Attrition Classroom research Education Phonology Writing. He distinguishes those learners that use the ‘monitor’ all the time over-users ; those learners who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge under-users ; and those learners that use the ‘monitor’ appropriately optimal users.

In other words, affective variables such as fear, nervousness, boredom, and resistance to change can effect the acquisition of a second language by preventing information about the second language from reaching the language areas of the mind. This page was last edited on 24 Septemberat According to the affective filter hypothesis, affect effects acquisition, but not learning, by facilitating or preventing comprehensible input from reaching the language acquisition device.


Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. For example, if we acquire the rules of language in a linear order 1, 2, Look at the cartoon and decide which of Krashen’s Hypotheses apply to this student. However, in spite of the popularity and influence of the Monitor Model, the five hypotheses are not without criticism. She states that they are anxious about using the TL. According to Krashen, the role of the monitor is – or should be – minor, being used only to correct deviations from “normal” speech and to give speech a more ‘polished’ appearance.

The model has been criticized by some linguists [ who? Heather Johnson October 28, Trends in Research and Practice: An evaluation of the person’s psychological profile can help to determine to what group they belong.

Applied Linguistics 5 2. The affective filter hypothesis in language learning, what does it mean? Only now is understanding complete, and we come into full possession of the phrase which can become a recipe for many more sentences, such as “Wie alt ist es? In this section, we will look at the work of Stephen Krashen, specifically his 6 hypotheses on language acquisition, in order to better understand the challenges that might arise during the language learning process.

Archived from the original on Krashen’s hypotheses have been influential in language educationparticularly in the United Statesbut have received criticism from some academics. The hypotheses put primary importance on the comprehensible input CI that language learners are exposed to.

This is a subtle point. Much of his recent research has involved the study of non-English and bilingual language acquisition. Teaching and learning English as a Second Language: According to Krashen, both adults and children can subconsciously acquire language, and either affectivee or oral language can be acquired.

Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Language teachers and learners alike know that producing oral language can be a challenge but that it is a necessary part of learning a language. Learning a language, on the other hand, is a conscious process, much like what one experiences in school. Krashen also filtwr that there is individual variation among language learners with regard to ‘monitor’ use.


According to Krashen the affective filter can be prompted by many different variables including anxiety, self-confidence, motivation and stress. They function as a filter between the speaker and the listener that reduces the amount of language input the listener is able to understand. From where and when does the word Christmas come?

Krashen’s Hypotheses

The goal of any language program is for learners to be able to communicate effectively. In language education this may be especially important since in order to take in and produce language, learners need to feel that they are able to make mistakes and take risks.

Stephen Krashen University of Southern California is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development. Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition consists of six main hypotheses: The affective filter, therefore, accounts for individual variation in second language acquisition. In addition, many learners tend to monitor their use of the language too much, focusing more on accuracy than fluency which in turn prevents them from using the language in a communicative manner.

During the past 20 years, he has published well over books and articles and has been invited to deliver over lectures at universities throughout the United States and Canada. Pergamon Press “Archived copy”.

Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition

This order is not dependent on the ease with which a particular language feature can be taught; some features, such as third-person “-s” “he runs” are easy to teach in a classroom setting, but are not typically acquired until the later stages of language acquisition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Any subject matter that held their interest would do just as well. Filger are many difficulties with the use of the monitor, making the monitor rather weak as a language tool.

This hypothetical filter does not impact acquisition directly but rather prevents input from reaching the language acquisition part of the brain.